Friday, January 29, 2016

Into the Den of the Devil Dog: The Conclusion!

By Jim Godwin and Lesley de Souza,
      Read Part I Here.

    The herpetological collection at Auburn University contains the majority of Eastern Hellbenders from Alabama that have been deposited in research collections. Most of the specimens were collected during the 1960s and 70s. Since then few specimens have been collected and the few reports of Hellbenders that have come to light have come from incidental observations from aquatic biologists and the occasional animal found by recreational paddlers and fishermen. No recent biological surveys have documented the Eastern Hellbender in Alabama.

    In spring of 2014 an Eastern Hellbender was seen, captured, and photographed by a team of fisheries biologists in Cypress Creek in Lauderdale County. This sighting sparked a new interest to evaluate the status of the Eastern Hellbender in Alabama, which is the objective of the current project. To do this we have and will be surveying historical and new localities. Rare species are often very difficult to locate, an obvious statement and one that is well applied to the Eastern Hellbender in Alabama. In 2015, from May until September, locations in streams were searched for Hellbenders and water samples were taken. But it was not until the latter two weeks of September that a milestone was reached. During these weeks we assembled a cadre of volunteers and, floating the streams in canoes and kayaks, sampled eight streams and over 50 stream miles. Most of the streams had at least one historic hellbender record. Although all streams exhibited signs of water quality degradation all also had stretches of suitable appearing habitat, that is, stream runs with nice flat rocks and a substrate of gravel or cobble. 

    We put in long days on the streams and the big news came at the end of our first week of intense sampling. On a Friday when we were very near the end of a short float trip on the Flint River one last large rock was lifted and a large female Eastern Hellbender was discovered and captured by Tom Floyd of Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Tom has been working on Eastern Hellbenders in north Georgia and made the trip to Alabama to contribute his expertise on the species. Everyone within a 100 m radius likely heard the cries of excitement with the capture of this hellbender, and for those who had been searching all week there was no doubt as to the meaning of those yells; an excellent close to a full week of searching for the Devil Dog. Once we had the hellbender in hand everyone quickly gathered together to see the beast. As our little clot of biologists were standing in the river and examining the hellbender a couple kayakers came by. One slowed enough to investigate the source of excitement and upon seeing the hellbender a puzzled and bewildered look covered his face. His remark was that he had never seen a hellbender. Unfortunately this is a sad commentary on the knowledge level of nature within our society; having such incredible animals essentially in your backyard and not knowing about them.



    The significance of this find is that it provides official documentation that the Eastern Hellbender remains in Alabama, giving hope that the species may be found in other streams. Most records from the Flint River were from the late 1960s and from river stretches much further upstream, although one specimen was captured in 1999 yet vouchered only as a photograph. Our eDNA results will not be available for a few months and if we have positive results from this aspect of our work this will point us to streams in which to intensify our search efforts for next year.

    The Eastern Hellbender female we captured was weighed and measured, and we collected a tissue sample for DNA analysis as well as implanting a PIT tag for future identification. This work will continue through next year and the results we obtain will guide us in providing recommendations for the conservation and management of the Eastern Hellbender in Alabama.

    The following morning we returned to rescue our canoes but both were behind a fenced-off pasture with a locked gate. Not knowing the landowner we first stopped at the nearest house, a neat old frame dwelling with an arch over the drive with the name “Frost.” On the porch was an older white-haired woman shelling peas. The outer wall of the house behind her was decorated with farm implements and other artifacts. We introduced ourselves and stated our dilemma, requesting permission to have the gate unlocked and be allowed to cross the property. Her reply was that she was not the landowner (dang), but she knew the landowner and gave us his name and direction to his house (yah!). We thanked her and drove on. After a few turns we came to the landowner’s house. As we were pulling in he was driving out across a field from his bee hives. Still wearing his bee suit he stepped out of his truck and warmly welcomed us. After another round of introductions and stating our need he graciously offered to go back with us, open the gate and give us access to the boats. He even offered the use of a cabin on his property if we had a future need of it. This woman and man are good examples of solid country folk.

    We retrieved our canoes and gear without incident, but we did use a truck mounted winch to drag the water sample laden canoe up a near vertical 8 ft. bank; this was much easier than unloading all the gear and carrying it up the slope.

    Hellbender field work for 2015 has been completed. Results from field surveys are immediately known while lab work on water samples waits to be done. We expect the answers from our DNA analysis to be revealing but what secrets will the DNA yield? Will the DNA analysis direct our return to Big Nance Creek? These answers and more will be slowly revealed over the next few months.




Our hellbender work has been a group effort with support from agencies, organizations, and volunteers. We thank Auburn University, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Alabama A&M, Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Tennessee Aquarium, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Spencer Bradley, Josh Ennen, Cody Ewers, Thomas Floyd, Jeff Garner and his mother, Bill Gates, Jeff Goessling, Iwo Gross, Bernie Kuhajda, Cal Johnson, Heather Montgomery, Sara Piccolomini, Keith Ray, Lacy Rucker, Mark Sasser, Nick Sharp, Geoff Sorrell, Tyler Williams, Anna Perez-Umphrey.


Jim Godwin is an irregular contributor to Living Alongside Wildlife.

Lesley de Souza received her Ph.D. from Auburn University focused on Neotropical fishes, since then her work has centered on Arapaima research and conservation in Guyana. On-going studies on eDNA and conservation of the Black Warrior Waterdog, Flattened Musk Turtle, and Eastern Hellbender have kept her aquatically connected to the southeastern United States. Check out her website.

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Into the Den of the Devil Dog


By Jim Godwin and Lesley de Souza

Part I.

    The time was mid-afternoon 15 September 2015 and we were in our first full day of intensive Eastern Hellbender surveys that were to continue over the next two weeks. We began this day on Big Nance Creek in Lawrence County, Alabama. This stream was selected because it’s within the range of the Eastern Hellbender, had never been searched, and had accessible stream-road crossings for canoe drop-off and take-out. What we did not anticipate was what lay between those points.

    On the stream this day were Sara Piccolomini and Tom Floyd in one of the Dagger Legend canoes while we were in the other. The day, in early fall, was one of clear skies and warm temperatures (hey, this is Alabama after all). Soon after beginning the float we encountered stream stretches with nice appearing habitat, stream channels with water flowing over flat rocks and a gravel and cobble substrate. Tom donned a mask and snorkel and dove under to turn rocks. While the general appearance of the habitat was promising the stirring of silt from the lifting of rocks was a cause for concern. Accumulations of silt and sediment are indicators of degraded water quality, the general underlying cause for the decline of the hellbender and other aquatic species in Alabama.

    As we progressed downstream we began to encounter a few trees lying in and across the channel, but downed trees in stream channels are part of the ecological life of the stream. Big Nance Creek is on the south side of the Tennessee River and flows north to the river. As we floated down the stream we searched for Hellbenders at promising locations and collected water samples for an analysis for Hellbender DNA, a method commonly known as environmental DNA (eDNA). At each eDNA sampling point the weight in our canoe increased and once we had filled all our bottles we were carrying an extra 68 lbs. more than when we had started out that morning. Later in the day we would feel the weight of every pound of water….

    The Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis; aka snot otter, lasagna lizard, devil dog, grampus, and a few others colloquial names) is one of the largest salamanders in North America and may attain a total length approaching ¾ of a meter. Its range spans New York to Alabama. In Alabama this fully-aquatic salamander, with fleshy folds running the length of the body between the limbs, is found only in the very northern counties where it occupies streams draining into the Tennessee River. Although we lack historical information on population sizes, overall hellbender numbers appear to have declined and we attribute this to degradation of water quality from sedimentation, siltation, channelization, and impounding of streams. Museum records dating back into the 1960s and 70s document localities in numerous streams of northern Alabama counties, yet the current status of the species is unknown. To remedy this lack of information we are performing surveys this year and next through studies funded by the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

    Why is excess sedimentation and siltation an issue for the hellbender? Good habitat for the Hellbender are streams with cool, clear, well oxygenated water that have a substrate with an abundance of large flat rocks overlying a layer of gravel and cobble. Since hellbenders respire cutaneously their skin presents a large surface area for gas exchange between the hellbender and the water. Elevated loads of suspended solids in the water will hamper the Hellbender’s ability to take up dissolved oxygen from the water. Hellbenders occupy cavities beneath flat rocks in the streams; their flattened bodies allow them to squeeze into the tight spots but they also shape cavities by shifting around gravel. During the breeding season a male’s cavity may become a brood chamber for eggs. Following oviposition by the female a male will guard and, using his lateral folds of skin, circulate water over the eggs. Abnormally high levels of sedimentation reduces dissolved oxygen content in water and sifts down and fills spaces in the gravel and cobble, and invades and chokes out cavities under rocks. The end result of this is a loss of hellbender habitat for the brooding of eggs and day-to-day refugia for adult and juvenile animals. These degradative effects have ramifications throughout the aquatic system, including everything from insects, crayfish, bivalves, snails, fish and other species.

    The typical method in searching for Eastern Hellbenders is to wade or snorkel in shallow streams and lift large flat rocks. Hellbenders take refuge under rocks as do many other aquatic species. Over the years the visual surveys and hand captures have been the means by which most Hellbenders have been collected, although occasionally one will be hooked by a fisherman or taken on a trotline. In recent years a new technique integrating field and lab methods has emerged, a technique informally termed environmental DNA (eDNA). The Hellbender, and other aquatic species, shed cells and tissue which is carried along in the water column. This cellular material has been termed environmental DNA and can be collected and analyzed. The collections and subsequent analysis of a water sample can reveal the presence of Hellbender DNA from streams containing the species. The field method is straight-forward, with a decontaminated one liter bottle a sample of stream water is collected and passed through a filter thus isolating the cells and tissues from the water sample. From this stage the filters go to the lab where the DNA is chemically extracted. DNA extracts are then screened for Hellbender DNA with a primer specific to the species.

    Biologists throughout the range of the Eastern Hellbender are concerned about the conservation of the species and researchers are incorporating both standard sampling and eDNA techniques to assess the status of the species. In Alabama we also are utilizing both methods and since eDNA has been shown to be more sensitive to detecting the presence of the hellbender we expect to locate streams previously unknown to contain hellbenders, if they are present.

    The late summer and fall in Alabama are normally times of low water levels in the streams which may not be good for a recreational float but produce optimum conditions for searching for aquatic life and collecting water samples. But the low water conditions often present other challenges. We had expected that we would encounter very shallow riffles and need to drag canoes through these low water spots, what we did not anticipate were the log jams. Somewhere north of AL highway 157 on Big Nance Creek the occurrence of downed trees rose dramatically, as did our observations of cottonmouths. 

    We began to encounter channel-choking logjams one after the other and with a good five or six miles remaining before reaching the take-out. We were able to negotiate many of the logjams by lifting the front of the canoe upon a low tree trunk and dragging it over with short orchestrated bursts of pulling. “On the count of three, pull!” Remember the 68 lbs. of water samples? Those were in a plastic box at the center of the canoe and always required a little extra oomph to pull across the log. As we made our way downstream we encountered deeper waters that would require a parallel realignment of the canoe so that we could step out onto the log. After that a perpendicular alignment of the canoe for pulling it over the log while we did balancing acts to avoid a good dunking. 

    We were hitting these passage-blocking logjams every 100 to 200 yards count of the number of logjams that had been negotiated. As the sun began to drop lower we were faced with decisions. Our parties had become separated. We were much further down the stream than Sara and Tom. Where were they and had they encountered other difficulties? We called and texted Sara but as we later learned the battery in her phone was running very low. Tom’s phones were safely ensconced in a dry bag in our canoe. At one stop where we had a good view downstream we waited about 15 minutes for Sara and Tom; they never appeared. Because we were rapidly losing daylight we decided to push on and try to reach the take-out. 

     We met the final logjam of the day. Large trees were completely blocking the channel and in the dimming light we could see only two possible routes. To take the “easier” route we would have to push through an accumulation of duckweed and floating debris. We gave it a try but could not force the canoe through the trash. A second route was possible along the left bank. This would necessitate a portage of gear and a dragging of the empty boat up along the bank past the trunk of the tree. Our third option was to secure the canoe, grab the important items, and walk out. By this time darkness had fallen and so we walked out. We were within a mile or so of the take-out. We walked out across a large hay field to a county road which led to the road where the truck was parked. It was a nice night for a walk under clear skies and a sliver of the moon. But where were Sara and Tom? We had connected by text and knew they were safe and had made the same decision to leave their canoe on the water, but we know not exactly where they were.

Part II tomorrow...


Jim Godwin is an irregular contributor to Living Alongside 
Wildlife.

Lesley de Souza received her Ph.D. from Auburn University focused on Neotropical fishes, since then her work has centered on Arapaima research and conservation in Guyana. On-going studies on eDNA and conservation of the Black Warrior Waterdog, Flattened Musk Turtle, and Eastern Hellbender have kept her aquatically connected to the southeastern United States. Check out her website.


Monday, January 4, 2016

What Really Happened to Turtle Soup?

    They say you can get seven different kinds of meat from butchering a turtle. Depending on what part of the turtle you’re chewing on, the taste may be reminiscent of pork, or chicken, or veal, or fish, or whatever … you get the picture. Perhaps this variability can partly explain why turtle has been such a popular menu item throughout the history of the United States. At least, it used to be. Not so long ago you could find Campbell’s turtle soup sitting alongside minestrone and tomato in grocery stores throughout the country. So what happened? How and why did an American staple virtually vanish?

    To continue reading the rest of my latest Slate article, click here.



Friday, December 25, 2015

What Animals Went Extinct in 2015?

    It's a tradition here at Living Alongside Wildlife to gather in one place a summary of all the animals that went extinct in the previous year. Click here for the 2014, 2013, and 2012 editions. Given the feedback (and trolling) that last year's edition received, I want to address a few common comments/criticisms before we get into it.

1. Just because we are always discovering "new" species doesn't mean we are offsetting extinctions somehow. When we discover a new species it is not actually new to Earth, it is just new to us. In other words, a new life form was not just created, we just happened to learn about it. There is a limited pool of species and the total number of species is decreasing. Evolution leads to the creation of new species but not on a time scale that is relevant to this conversation.

2. Human beings are one of the species on Earth. That does not mean that anything and everything we do is natural and therefore okay, even if it means causing species to go extinct. Other species have value and we should act accordingly to keep them around.

3. In my list I include species that went extinct in a globally significant region even if the species might still exist somewhere else. I think these local extinctions (called extirpations) are important. You might decide not to include them in your list of extinctions.

4. I include in my list species that went extinct in the wild, even if some individuals may still exist in captivity. See above.

5. It is often impossible to know when a species went biologically extinct. That is, there is often no way of knowing when the last individual of a given species dies. So, I often include in my list species that were declared extinct, this official designation often occurs many years after the last actual death. Again, you may not include them in your list of extinctions, but I do.

6. It is not unusual to "rediscover" a species that we thought was extinct. That is always great news. But, they are usually still critically endangered and often "really" go extinct afterwards.

    Okay. I kind of have some good news: when the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) released their 2015 Red List update, they did not change the status of any species to extinct or extinct in the wild! So, there are no official global extinctions in the last year but again it is important to note that although there were almost definitely a lot of biological extinctions we just don't have enough information to make it official.  Over at Scientific American, John Platt summarized the species that the IUCN decided were critically endangered and possibly extinct in the wild. This list of species is mostly made up of plants in Hawaii but also includes a South American lizard and frog.


Image Courtesy of FCIT
    So what do we have left to talk about? Well, after a four-year review, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed declaring the Eastern Cougar extinct. This is an interesting and controversial development. For one, it is not possible to say anything about the Eastern Cougar without someone telling you a story about how they, or someone they know, has seen one. A lot of these stories are bogus or misidentified bobcats (or house cats), but not all of them. For example, three cougars have been confirmed in Tennessee in the last three months. Maybe these animals have migrated from populations out west; we will learn more about their status in the coming years.

    The Sumatran Rhinoceros is probably extinct in the wilds of Malaysia. There are still some in Indonesia (considered the same species) and a few in captivity so hopefully there is a future for this animal; but, it is desperate times. The Cincinnati Zoo, which is the only institution in the United States that has successfully bred the species, has sent their last rhino to Indonesia to help with their captive breeding efforts.

    People often ask me if there is reason for hope despite all the doom and gloom. Absolutely! There are many passionate people fighting hard to conserve the natural world. And, they are succeeding: I could provide links to lots of stories about the creation of new large reserves, new protections for many species, and reintroduction efforts that are bringing species back. We are in the midst of an alarming and global extinction crisis, but the end is not a foregone conclusion for most species.

    Did I leave out an extinction? Let me know below.

Friday, December 18, 2015

Readers Write In: How Would You Like to Identify These Snakes?

My guess is that the one in the road is a copperhead (it was about 3 feet long, you can see a car had run over the back part of it) and the one in the sticky trap--less than a foot long--was a brown snake or some other non-venomous one, but please let me know what you think. (And I think that is a wolf spider in the other trap, right?) The traps were on the floor in the garage, right by thentrance from outside. Why do you think the snake ventured inside? We are just moving in, and the house and garage are still empty so can't imagine there was a food source he was after....? 


Bill W.
Maryland













Thank you so much for helping me figure out what kind of snake this is. The scales on the belly go strait across, they are not in a brick pattern, if that helps any

Brandi M. 





What Are These Snakes?
-----

Snake Identification Post Ground Rules

-Guesses are welcome and encouraged. Don't worry if you're not an expert, wrong guesses allow us to talk about how to distinguish between the various species and that's why I run these posts.

-If you can't explain why you think a snake is a particular species, go ahead and just say what you think it is. But otherwise please do let us all know how you identified the animal. If you're wrong, we can explain why. If you're right, this helps everyone learn how to identify snakes, which is the point of these posts.

-This is not a pop quiz, any kind of research is encouraged and I hope you will engage with other commenters to try to figure these snakes out. I will eventually chime in with my thoughts.

-Assume I know what kind of snake is in the picture. I run these posts because they are outreach opportunities. Please don't send me private e-mails with your guesses, include them below.

-Remember, the person that sent me the picture is probably reading your comments. Although it is frustrating to know that many of these snakes have been killed, these people do want to learn more about them. More snake knowledge will lead to fewer snakes being killed. Don't hate, educate.

Friday, December 11, 2015

Readers Write In: Watersnake? Cottonmouth? And more to ID

Hi -


First, I found a snakeskin in my garage about 2.5 feet long.   Maybe a month or so later, I saw a snake emerge from that same side of my garage after I had been making noise in the area -it was about 4 feet long.  Haven't had success identifying it yet. I am in the the Catskill Mountain area in New York State. Sorry the photo isn't the best.   Would you help to identify please?

Thank you so much!

Mick
New York

Hello, sir. 

I found your site while trying to identify this snake. It's markings are mottled and don't seem to resemble pics of the water snake or cottonmouth. It was sunning on a dock just south of Orangedale, Florida, which is located south of and across the St. John's River from Green Cove Springs. Thanks for your expert help. 

Ray L.
Florida

What type of rattle snake is this
Denny

What Are These Snakes?
-----

Snake Identification Post Ground Rules

-Guesses are welcome and encouraged. Don't worry if you're not an expert, wrong guesses allow us to talk about how to distinguish between the various species and that's why I run these posts.

-If you can't explain why you think a snake is a particular species, go ahead and just say what you think it is. But otherwise please do let us all know how you identified the animal. If you're wrong, we can explain why. If you're right, this helps everyone learn how to identify snakes, which is the point of these posts.

-This is not a pop quiz, any kind of research is encouraged and I hope you will engage with other commenters to try to figure these snakes out. I will eventually chime in with my thoughts.

-Assume I know what kind of snake is in the picture. I run these posts because they are outreach opportunities. Please don't send me private e-mails with your guesses, include them below.

-Remember, the person that sent me the picture is probably reading your comments. Although it is frustrating to know that many of these snakes have been killed, these people do want to learn more about them. More snake knowledge will lead to fewer snakes being killed. Don't hate, educate.